The first mechanised paper machine was installed at Frogmore
Mill, Apsley, Hertfordshire in 1803, followed by another in 1804. The site operates
currently as a museum.Paper is one of the core industries and is linked to the basic
human needs. Paper is the pre-requisite for education and literacy and its use is an
index of advancement in these two fields as well as the overall well being of the
The paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw
material and produce pulp, paper, board and other cellulose-based products.
The industry is dominated by North American (United States and
Canada), northern European (Finland, Sweden, and North-West Russia) and East Asian
countries (such as East Siberian Russia, China, Japan, and South Korea). Australasia and
Brazil also have significant pulp and paper enterprises. The United States had been the
world's leading producer of paper until it was overtaken by China in 2009.
The industry is criticized by environmental groups like the
Natural Resources Defense Council for unsustainable deforestation and clear cutting of
old-growth forest. The industry trend is to expand globally to countries like Russia,
China and Indonesia with low wages and low environmental oversight. According to
Greenpeace, farmers in Central America illegally rip up vast tracts of native forest for
cattle and soybean production without any consequences, and companies who buy timber
from private land owners contribute to massive deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest.
Considering that the pulp and paper industry is a practitioner
of nanotechnology, then it is easily the world's largest.