Travel & Tourism Sectors
Tourism is an important, even vital, source of income for many regions and
countries. Its importance was recognized in the Manila Declaration on World
Tourism of 1980 as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its
direct effects on the social, cultural, educational, and economic sectors of
national societies and on their international relations".
Travel is the movement of people between relatively distant geographical locations, and
can involve travel by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, airplane, or other means,
with or without luggage, and can be one way or round trip. Travel can also include
relatively short stays between successive movements.
The origin of the word "travel" is most likely lost to history. The term "travel" may
originate from the Old French word travail. According to the Merriam Webster dictionary,
the first known use of the word travel was in the 14th century. It also states that the
word comes from Middle English travailen, travelen (which means to torment, labor,
strive, journey) and earlier from Old French travailler (which means to work
strenuously, toil). In English we still occasionally use the words travail and travails,
which mean struggle.
According to Simon Winchester in his book The Best Traveler's Tales (2004), the words
travel and travail both share an even more ancient root i.e., a Roman instrument of
torture called the tripalium (in Latin it means "three stakes", as in to impale). This
link reflects the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Also note the torturous
connotation of the word "travailler". Today, travel may or may not be much easier
depending upon the destination you choose (i.e., Mt. Everest, the Amazon rainforest),
how you plan to get there (tour bus, cruise ship, or oxcart), and whether or not you
decide to "rough it (see extreme tourism and adventure travel).
Tourism is travel for pleasure also the theory and practice of touring, the business of
attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating
tours.Tourism may be international, or within the traveler's country. The World Tourism
Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common
perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only ", as people "traveling
to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".
Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and
outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Today, tourism is a major
source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host
countries, in some cases being of vital importance.
Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession,
between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, and the outbreak of the H1N1
influenza virus, but slowly recovered. International tourism receipts (the travel item
in the balance of payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2011,
corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010.International tourist
arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in
2012, emerging markets such as China, Russia and Brazil had significantly increased
their spending over the previous decade. The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism